Raspberry Pi + Google Drive + UVC = RaspiCloudCamera

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Raspberry Pi に USB Webcam (UVC) を挿し motion で画像を撮り cron で Google Drive へアップロードする、監視カメラ的なものを作った。当初は motion で差分検出をし画像を得るつもりだったのだが、実際に運用をし始めてからいろいろ検討した結果、ウチでは定期的 (1 分ごと)に画像を撮れば事が足りてしまった。それでも取り敢えず motion は使い続けている。今回の動作環境は以下の通り。

Raspberry Pi 接 USB Webcam (UVC) ,用 motion 來定期拍照,用 cron 來到 Google Drive 上傳其照片 — 實作像監視相機似的應用。當初我本人想用到 motion 做檢查畫面的變化而記錄下來,不過開始實際運作經過一些實驗以後,我是注意到在我的情景下定期 (每 1 分鍾) 拍照就夠了。但是我目前還是繼續用 motion 。這次的動作環境是如下所列。

  • Hardware
  • Software
    • Raspbian Jessie Lite
    • motion
    • drive
    • cron

Step 1. Install Raspbian

省略


Step 2. Setup Google Drive

Step 2-1. Create Google Account

PC からブラウザを使って Google アカウントを作る。

在 PC 上用瀏覽器來建立新的 Google 帳號。

Step 2-2. Install drive command

まず現時点での最新版 v0.3.9 のバイナリをダウンロードし (→ drive_armv6) 、権限を付与し /usr/bin/drive として保存する。

首先,下載目前的最新版本 v0.3.9 的 drive 執行檔 (-> drive_armv6) ,然後調整權限而在 /usr/bin/drive 儲存。

$ cd /tmp
$ wget https://github.com/odeke-em/drive/releases/download/v0.3.9/drive_armv6
$ sudo copy drive_arm6 /usr/local/bin/drive
$ sudo chown root:root /usr/local/bin/drive
$ sudo chmod 755 /usr/local/bin/drive
$ rm /tmp/drive_armv6

Step 2-3. Pairing with Google account

次に uid:motion のユーザーとして Google Drive と同期するディレクトリ (/home/motion/google_drive) を作成する。そして drive コマンドを使ってさっき作った Google アカウントとそのディレクトリを結びつける。

接着,用到 uid:motion 的身份來建立跟 Google Drive 同步用的目錄 (/home/motion/google_drive) ,然後剛才建立的 Google 帳號與這個目錄用到 drive 指令來配對起來。

$ sudo mkdir -p /home/motion/google_drive
$ sudo chown -R motion:motion /home/motion
$ sudo --user=motion drive init /home/motion/google_drive
Visit this URL to get an authorization code
https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/auth?......
Paste the authorization code:

PC からブラウザを使って、表示された認証用アドレスへアクセスして認証コードを得、「 Paste the authorization code: 」の後ろへコピペする。

在 PC 上用瀏覽器來訪問被顯示出來的那個地址而取得認證碼,然後到「 Paste the authorization code: 」的後面貼上去。

Google Account Confirmation
Google Account Authentication Code

確認。

$ cd /home/motion/google_drive
$ sudo --user=motion drive about
Name: **** ****
Account type:    LIMITED
Bytes Used:    0                    (0.00B)
Bytes Free:    16106127360          (15.00GB)
Bytes InTrash:    0                    (0.00B)
Total Bytes:    16106127360          (15.00GB)

* Space used by Google Services *
Service                              Bytes                               
DRIVE                                0.00B                               
GMAIL                                0.00B                               
PHOTOS                               0.00B                               
Space used by all Google Apps        0.00B                               


* Maximum upload sizes per file type *
FileType                                           Size                
application/vnd.google-apps.document               10.00MB             
application/vnd.google-apps.spreadsheet            100.00MB            
application/vnd.google-apps.presentation           100.00MB            
application/vnd.google-apps.drawing                2.00MB              
application/pdf                                    4.77TB              
*                                                  4.77TB              

Feature                        Request limit (queries/second)
ocr                            0.000000                      
translation                    2.000000

Step 3. Setup UVC

Step 3-1. Install motion command

$ sudo apt-get install motion

この操作で uid:motion と gid:motion が追加、また以下のファイルがインストールされる。

這結果被新增 uid:motion 跟 gid:motion ,另外同時被導入如下列檔案。

  • /etc/init.d/motion
  • /etc/motion/motion.conf
  • /etc/default/motion

Step 3-2. Survey UVC formats

v4l2-ctl コマンドでこの UVC がどのフォーマットとサイズをサポートしているのか調查する。このコマンドは v4l-utils パッケージに入っているのでインストール。

用 v4l2-ctl 指令來調查這 UVC 所支援的格式。這指令是在於 v4l-utils 套件內。

$ sudo apt-get install v4l-utils

そして、列挙した画像形式とサイズから丁度良いものを選べばいい。

然後,從列出來的格式與大小挑選自己想要用的。

$ v4l2-ctl -d /dev/video0 --list-formats
ioctl: VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT
    Index       : 0
    Type        : Video Capture
    Pixel Format: 'YUYV'
    Name        : YUYV 4:2:2

    Index       : 1
    Type        : Video Capture
    Pixel Format: 'MJPG' (compressed)
    Name        : Motion-JPEG

$ v4l2-ctl -d /dev/video1 --list-formats --list-framesizes=YUYV
ioctl: VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT
    Index       : 0
    Type        : Video Capture
    Pixel Format: 'YUYV'
    Name        : YUYV 4:2:2

    Index       : 1
    Type        : Video Capture
    Pixel Format: 'MJPG' (compressed)
    Name        : Motion-JPEG

ioctl: VIDIOC_ENUM_FRAMESIZES
    Size: Discrete 640x480
    Size: Discrete 160x120
    Size: Discrete 176x144
    Size: Discrete 320x176
    Size: Discrete 320x240
    Size: Discrete 432x240
    Size: Discrete 352x288
    Size: Discrete 544x288
    Size: Discrete 640x360
    Size: Discrete 752x416
    Size: Discrete 800x448
    Size: Discrete 864x480
    Size: Discrete 960x544
    Size: Discrete 1024x576
    Size: Discrete 800x600
    Size: Discrete 1184x656
    Size: Discrete 960x720
    Size: Discrete 1280x720
    Size: Discrete 1392x768
    Size: Discrete 1504x832
    Size: Discrete 1600x896
    Size: Discrete 1280x960
    Size: Discrete 1712x960
    Size: Discrete 1792x1008
    Size: Discrete 1920x1080

Step 3-3. Edit your own motion.conf

/etc/motion/motion.conf の内容を編集する。

修改 /etc/motion/motion.conf 的內容。

############################################################
# Daemon
############################################################

# Start in daemon (background) mode and release terminal (default: off)
daemon on

# File to store the process ID, also called pid file. (default: not defined)
process_id_file /var/run/motion/motion.pid

############################################################
# Basic Setup Mode
############################################################

# Start in Setup-Mode, daemon disabled. (default: off)
setup_mode off


# Use a file to save logs messages, if not defined stderr and syslog is used. (default: not defined)
;logfile /tmp/motion.log

# Level of log messages [1..9] (EMR, ALR, CRT, ERR, WRN, NTC, INF, DBG, ALL). (default: 6 / NTC)
log_level 4

# Filter to log messages by type (COR, STR, ENC, NET, DBL, EVT, TRK, VID, ALL). (default: ALL)
log_type all

###########################################################
# Capture device options
############################################################

# Videodevice to be used for capturing  (default /dev/video0)
# for FreeBSD default is /dev/bktr0
videodevice /dev/video0

# v4l2_palette allows to choose preferable palette to be use by motion
# to capture from those supported by your videodevice. (default: 17)
# E.g. if your videodevice supports both V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR8 and
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_MJPEG then motion will by default use V4L2_PIX_FMT_MJPEG.
# Setting v4l2_palette to 2 forces motion to use V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR8
# instead.
#
# Values :
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SN9C10X : 0  'S910'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR16 : 1  'BYR2'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR8  : 2  'BA81'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SPCA561 : 3  'S561'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SGBRG8  : 4  'GBRG'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SGRBG8  : 5  'GRBG'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_PAC207  : 6  'P207'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_PJPG    : 7  'PJPG'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_MJPEG   : 8  'MJPEG'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_JPEG    : 9  'JPEG'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB24   : 10 'RGB3'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SPCA501 : 11 'S501'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SPCA505 : 12 'S505'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SPCA508 : 13 'S508'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_UYVY    : 14 'UYVY'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUYV    : 15 'YUYV'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV422P : 16 '422P'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV420  : 17 'YU12'
#
v4l2_palette 15

# Tuner device to be used for capturing using tuner as source (default /dev/tuner0)
# This is ONLY used for FreeBSD. Leave it commented out for Linux
; tunerdevice /dev/tuner0

# The video input to be used (default: -1)
# Should normally be set to 0 or 1 for video/TV cards, and -1 for USB cameras
input -1

# The video norm to use (only for video capture and TV tuner cards)
# Values: 0 (PAL), 1 (NTSC), 2 (SECAM), 3 (PAL NC no colour). Default: 0 (PAL)
norm 0

# The frequency to set the tuner to (kHz) (only for TV tuner cards) (default: 0)
frequency 0

# Rotate image this number of degrees. The rotation affects all saved images as
# well as movies. Valid values: 0 (default = no rotation), 90, 180 and 270.
rotate 0

# Image width (pixels). Valid range: Camera dependent, default: 352
width 864

# Image height (pixels). Valid range: Camera dependent, default: 288
height 480

# Maximum number of frames to be captured per second.
# Valid range: 2-100. Default: 100 (almost no limit).
framerate 2

# Minimum time in seconds between capturing picture frames from the camera.
# Default: 0 = disabled - the capture rate is given by the camera framerate.
# This option is used when you want to capture images at a rate lower than 2 per second.
minimum_frame_time 20

# URL to use if you are using a network camera, size will be autodetected (incl http:// ftp:// mjpg:// rstp:// or file:///)
# Must be a URL that returns single jpeg pictures or a raw mjpeg stream. Default: Not defined
; netcam_url value

# Username and password for network camera (only if required). Default: not defined
# Syntax is user:password
; netcam_userpass value

# The setting for keep-alive of network socket, should improve performance on compatible net cameras.
# off:   The historical implementation using HTTP/1.0, closing the socket after each http request.
# force: Use HTTP/1.0 requests with keep alive header to reuse the same connection.
# on:    Use HTTP/1.1 requests that support keep alive as default.
# Default: off
netcam_keepalive off

# URL to use for a netcam proxy server, if required, e.g. "http://myproxy".
# If a port number other than 80 is needed, use "http://myproxy:1234".
# Default: not defined
; netcam_proxy value

# Set less strict jpeg checks for network cameras with a poor/buggy firmware.
# Default: off
netcam_tolerant_check off

# Let motion regulate the brightness of a video device (default: off).
# The auto_brightness feature uses the brightness option as its target value.
# If brightness is zero auto_brightness will adjust to average brightness value 128.
# Only recommended for cameras without auto brightness
auto_brightness off

# Set the initial brightness of a video device.
# If auto_brightness is enabled, this value defines the average brightness level
# which Motion will try and adjust to.
# Valid range 0-255, default 0 = disabled
brightness 0

# Set the contrast of a video device.
# Valid range 0-255, default 0 = disabled
contrast 0

# Set the saturation of a video device.
# Valid range 0-255, default 0 = disabled
saturation 0

# Set the hue of a video device (NTSC feature).
# Valid range 0-255, default 0 = disabled
hue 0


############################################################
# Round Robin (multiple inputs on same video device name)
############################################################

# Number of frames to capture in each roundrobin step (default: 1)
roundrobin_frames 1

# Number of frames to skip before each roundrobin step (default: 1)
roundrobin_skip 1

# Try to filter out noise generated by roundrobin (default: off)
switchfilter off


############################################################
# Motion Detection Settings:
############################################################

# Threshold for number of changed pixels in an image that
# triggers motion detection (default: 1500)
threshold 1500

# Automatically tune the threshold down if possible (default: off)
threshold_tune off

# Noise threshold for the motion detection (default: 32)
noise_level 32

# Automatically tune the noise threshold (default: on)
noise_tune on

# Despeckle motion image using (e)rode or (d)ilate or (l)abel (Default: not defined)
# Recommended value is EedDl. Any combination (and number of) of E, e, d, and D is valid.
# (l)abeling must only be used once and the 'l' must be the last letter.
# Comment out to disable
despeckle_filter EedDl

# Detect motion in predefined areas (1 - 9). Areas are numbered like that:  1 2 3
# A script (on_area_detected) is started immediately when motion is         4 5 6
# detected in one of the given areas, but only once during an event.        7 8 9
# One or more areas can be specified with this option. Take care: This option
# does NOT restrict detection to these areas! (Default: not defined)
; area_detect value

# PGM file to use as a sensitivity mask.
# Full path name to. (Default: not defined)
; mask_file value

# Dynamically create a mask file during operation (default: 0)
# Adjust speed of mask changes from 0 (off) to 10 (fast)
smart_mask_speed 0

# Ignore sudden massive light intensity changes given as a percentage of the picture
# area that changed intensity. Valid range: 0 - 100 , default: 0 = disabled
lightswitch 0

# Picture frames must contain motion at least the specified number of frames
# in a row before they are detected as true motion. At the default of 1, all
# motion is detected. Valid range: 1 to thousands, recommended 1-5
minimum_motion_frames 1

# Specifies the number of pre-captured (buffered) pictures from before motion
# was detected that will be output at motion detection.
# Recommended range: 0 to 5 (default: 0)
# Do not use large values! Large values will cause Motion to skip video frames and
# cause unsmooth movies. To smooth movies use larger values of post_capture instead.
pre_capture 0

# Number of frames to capture after motion is no longer detected (default: 0)
post_capture 0

# Event Gap is the seconds of no motion detection that triggers the end of an event.
# An event is defined as a series of motion images taken within a short timeframe.
# Recommended value is 60 seconds (Default). The value -1 is allowed and disables
# events causing all Motion to be written to one single movie file and no pre_capture.
# If set to 0, motion is running in gapless mode. Movies don't have gaps anymore. An
# event ends right after no more motion is detected and post_capture is over.
event_gap 60

# Maximum length in seconds of a movie
# When value is exceeded a new movie file is created. (Default: 0 = infinite)
max_movie_time 3600

# Always save images even if there was no motion (default: off)
emulate_motion off


############################################################
# Image File Output
############################################################

# Output 'normal' pictures when motion is detected (default: on)
# Valid values: on, off, first, best, center
# When set to 'first', only the first picture of an event is saved.
# Picture with most motion of an event is saved when set to 'best'.
# Picture with motion nearest center of picture is saved when set to 'center'.
# Can be used as preview shot for the corresponding movie.
output_pictures off

# Output pictures with only the pixels moving object (ghost images) (default: off)
output_debug_pictures off

# The quality (in percent) to be used by the jpeg compression (default: 75)
quality 95

# Type of output images
# Valid values: jpeg, ppm (default: jpeg)
picture_type jpeg

############################################################
# FFMPEG related options
# Film (movies) file output, and deinterlacing of the video input
# The options movie_filename and timelapse_filename are also used
# by the ffmpeg feature
############################################################

# Use ffmpeg to encode movies in realtime (default: off)
ffmpeg_output_movies off

# Use ffmpeg to make movies with only the pixels moving
# object (ghost images) (default: off)
ffmpeg_output_debug_movies off

# Use ffmpeg to encode a timelapse movie
# Default value 0 = off - else save frame every Nth second
ffmpeg_timelapse 0

# The file rollover mode of the timelapse video
# Valid values: hourly, daily (default), weekly-sunday, weekly-monday, monthly, manual
ffmpeg_timelapse_mode daily

# Bitrate to be used by the ffmpeg encoder (default: 400000)
# This option is ignored if ffmpeg_variable_bitrate is not 0 (disabled)
ffmpeg_bps 500000

# Enables and defines variable bitrate for the ffmpeg encoder.
# ffmpeg_bps is ignored if variable bitrate is enabled.
# Valid values: 0 (default) = fixed bitrate defined by ffmpeg_bps,
# or the range 2 - 31 where 2 means best quality and 31 is worst.
ffmpeg_variable_bitrate 0

# Codec to used by ffmpeg for the video compression.
# Timelapse mpegs are always made in mpeg1 format independent from this option.
# Supported formats are: mpeg1 (ffmpeg-0.4.8 only), mpeg4 (default), and msmpeg4.
# mpeg1 - gives you files with extension .mpg
# mpeg4 or msmpeg4 - gives you files with extension .avi
# msmpeg4 is recommended for use with Windows Media Player because
# it requires no installation of codec on the Windows client.
# swf - gives you a flash film with extension .swf
# flv - gives you a flash video with extension .flv
# ffv1 - FF video codec 1 for Lossless Encoding ( experimental )
# mov - QuickTime ( testing )
# ogg - Ogg/Theora ( testing )
ffmpeg_video_codec mpeg4

# Use ffmpeg to deinterlace video. Necessary if you use an analog camera
# and see horizontal combing on moving objects in video or pictures.
# (default: off)
ffmpeg_deinterlace off

############################################################
# SDL Window
############################################################

# Number of motion thread to show in SDL Window (default: 0 = disabled)
sdl_threadnr 0

############################################################
# External pipe to video encoder
# Replacement for FFMPEG builtin encoder for ffmpeg_output_movies only.
# The options movie_filename and timelapse_filename are also used
# by the ffmpeg feature
#############################################################

# Bool to enable or disable extpipe (default: off)
use_extpipe off

# External program (full path and opts) to pipe raw video to
# Generally, use '-' for STDIN...
;extpipe mencoder -demuxer rawvideo -rawvideo w=320:h=240:i420 -ovc x264 -x264encopts bframes=4:frameref=1:subq=1:scenecut=-1:nob_adapt:threads=1:keyint=1000:8x8dct:vbv_bufsize=4000:crf=24:partitions=i8x8,i4x4:vbv_maxrate=800:no-chroma-me -vf denoise3d=16:12:48:4,pp=lb -of   avi -o %f.avi - -fps %fps



############################################################
# Snapshots (Traditional Periodic Webcam File Output)
############################################################

# Make automated snapshot every N seconds (default: 0 = disabled)
snapshot_interval 60


############################################################
# Text Display
# %Y = year, %m = month, %d = date,
# %H = hour, %M = minute, %S = second, %T = HH:MM:SS,
# %v = event, %q = frame number, %t = thread (camera) number,
# %D = changed pixels, %N = noise level, \n = new line,
# %i and %J = width and height of motion area,
# %K and %L = X and Y coordinates of motion center
# %C = value defined by text_event - do not use with text_event!
# You can put quotation marks around the text to allow
# leading spaces
############################################################

# Locate and draw a box around the moving object.
# Valid values: on, off, preview (default: off)
# Set to 'preview' will only draw a box in preview_shot pictures.
locate_motion_mode off

# Set the look and style of the locate box if enabled.
# Valid values: box, redbox, cross, redcross (default: box)
# Set to 'box' will draw the traditional box.
# Set to 'redbox' will draw a red box.
# Set to 'cross' will draw a little cross to mark center.
# Set to 'redcross' will draw a little red cross to mark center.
locate_motion_style box

# Draws the timestamp using same options as C function strftime(3)
# Default: %Y-%m-%d\n%T = date in ISO format and time in 24 hour clock
# Text is placed in lower right corner
text_right %Y-%m-%d\n%T-%q

# Draw a user defined text on the images using same options as C function strftime(3)
# Default: Not defined = no text
# Text is placed in lower left corner
; text_left CAMERA %t

# Draw the number of changed pixed on the images (default: off)
# Will normally be set to off except when you setup and adjust the motion settings
# Text is placed in upper right corner
text_changes off

# This option defines the value of the special event conversion specifier %C
# You can use any conversion specifier in this option except %C. Date and time
# values are from the timestamp of the first image in the current event.
# Default: %Y%m%d%H%M%S
# The idea is that %C can be used filenames and text_left/right for creating
# a unique identifier for each event.
text_event %Y%m%d%H%M%S

# Draw characters at twice normal size on images. (default: off)
text_double off


# Text to include in a JPEG EXIF comment
# May be any text, including conversion specifiers.
# The EXIF timestamp is included independent of this text.
;exif_text %i%J/%K%L

############################################################
# Target Directories and filenames For Images And Films
# For the options snapshot_, picture_, movie_ and timelapse_filename
# you can use conversion specifiers
# %Y = year, %m = month, %d = date,
# %H = hour, %M = minute, %S = second,
# %v = event, %q = frame number, %t = thread (camera) number,
# %D = changed pixels, %N = noise level,
# %i and %J = width and height of motion area,
# %K and %L = X and Y coordinates of motion center
# %C = value defined by text_event
# Quotation marks round string are allowed.
############################################################

# Target base directory for pictures and films
# Recommended to use absolute path. (Default: current working directory)
target_dir /home/motion/pics

# File path for snapshots (jpeg or ppm) relative to target_dir
# Default: %v-%Y%m%d%H%M%S-snapshot
# Default value is equivalent to legacy oldlayout option
# For Motion 3.0 compatible mode choose: %Y/%m/%d/%H/%M/%S-snapshot
# File extension .jpg or .ppm is automatically added so do not include this.
# Note: A symbolic link called lastsnap.jpg created in the target_dir will always
# point to the latest snapshot, unless snapshot_filename is exactly 'lastsnap'
snapshot_filename %Y%m%d%H%M%S.0

# File path for motion triggered images (jpeg or ppm) relative to target_dir
# Default: %v-%Y%m%d%H%M%S-%q
# Default value is equivalent to legacy oldlayout option
# For Motion 3.0 compatible mode choose: %Y/%m/%d/%H/%M/%S-%q
# File extension .jpg or .ppm is automatically added so do not include this
# Set to 'preview' together with best-preview feature enables special naming
# convention for preview shots. See motion guide for details
picture_filename %Y%m%d%H%M%S.1.%q

# File path for motion triggered ffmpeg films (movies) relative to target_dir
# Default: %v-%Y%m%d%H%M%S
# Default value is equivalent to legacy oldlayout option
# For Motion 3.0 compatible mode choose: %Y/%m/%d/%H%M%S
# File extension .mpg or .avi is automatically added so do not include this
# This option was previously called ffmpeg_filename
movie_filename %Y%m%d%H%M%S.2

# File path for timelapse movies relative to target_dir
# Default: %Y%m%d-timelapse
# Default value is near equivalent to legacy oldlayout option
# For Motion 3.0 compatible mode choose: %Y/%m/%d-timelapse
# File extension .mpg is automatically added so do not include this
timelapse_filename %Y%m%d%H%M%S.3

############################################################
# Global Network Options
############################################################
# Enable or disable IPV6 for http control and stream (default: off )
ipv6_enabled off

############################################################
# Live Stream Server
############################################################

# The mini-http server listens to this port for requests (default: 0 = disabled)
stream_port 0

# Quality of the jpeg (in percent) images produced (default: 50)
stream_quality 50

# Output frames at 1 fps when no motion is detected and increase to the
# rate given by stream_maxrate when motion is detected (default: off)
stream_motion off

# Maximum framerate for stream streams (default: 1)
stream_maxrate 1

# Restrict stream connections to localhost only (default: on)
stream_localhost on

# Limits the number of images per connection (default: 0 = unlimited)
# Number can be defined by multiplying actual stream rate by desired number of seconds
# Actual stream rate is the smallest of the numbers framerate and stream_maxrate
stream_limit 0

# Set the authentication method (default: 0)
# 0 = disabled
# 1 = Basic authentication
# 2 = MD5 digest (the safer authentication)
stream_auth_method 0

# Authentication for the stream. Syntax username:password
# Default: not defined (Disabled)
; stream_authentication username:password


############################################################
# HTTP Based Control
############################################################

# TCP/IP port for the http server to listen on (default: 0 = disabled)
webcontrol_port 0

# Restrict control connections to localhost only (default: on)
webcontrol_localhost off

# Output for http server, select off to choose raw text plain (default: on)
webcontrol_html_output on

# Authentication for the http based control. Syntax username:password
# Default: not defined (Disabled)
; webcontrol_authentication username:password


############################################################
# Tracking (Pan/Tilt)
#############################################################

# Type of tracker (0=none (default), 1=stepper, 2=iomojo, 3=pwc, 4=generic, 5=uvcvideo, 6=servo)
# The generic type enables the definition of motion center and motion size to
# be used with the conversion specifiers for options like on_motion_detected
track_type 0

# Enable auto tracking (default: off)
track_auto off

# Serial port of motor (default: none)
;track_port /dev/ttyS0

# Motor number for x-axis (default: 0)
;track_motorx 0

# Set motorx reverse (default: 0)
;track_motorx_reverse 0

# Motor number for y-axis (default: 0)
;track_motory 1

# Set motory reverse (default: 0)
;track_motory_reverse 0

# Maximum value on x-axis (default: 0)
;track_maxx 200

# Minimum value on x-axis (default: 0)
;track_minx 50

# Maximum value on y-axis (default: 0)
;track_maxy 200

# Minimum value on y-axis (default: 0)
;track_miny 50

# Center value on x-axis (default: 0)
;track_homex 128

# Center value on y-axis (default: 0)
;track_homey 128

# ID of an iomojo camera if used (default: 0)
track_iomojo_id 0

# Angle in degrees the camera moves per step on the X-axis
# with auto-track (default: 10)
# Currently only used with pwc type cameras
track_step_angle_x 10

# Angle in degrees the camera moves per step on the Y-axis
# with auto-track (default: 10)
# Currently only used with pwc type cameras
track_step_angle_y 10

# Delay to wait for after tracking movement as number
# of picture frames (default: 10)
track_move_wait 10

# Speed to set the motor to (stepper motor option) (default: 255)
track_speed 255

# Number of steps to make (stepper motor option) (default: 40)
track_stepsize 40


############################################################
# External Commands, Warnings and Logging:
# You can use conversion specifiers for the on_xxxx commands
# %Y = year, %m = month, %d = date,
# %H = hour, %M = minute, %S = second,
# %v = event, %q = frame number, %t = thread (camera) number,
# %D = changed pixels, %N = noise level,
# %i and %J = width and height of motion area,
# %K and %L = X and Y coordinates of motion center
# %C = value defined by text_event
# %f = filename with full path
# %n = number indicating filetype
# Both %f and %n are only defined for on_picture_save,
# on_movie_start and on_movie_end
# Quotation marks round string are allowed.
############################################################

# Do not sound beeps when detecting motion (default: on)
# Note: Motion never beeps when running in daemon mode.
quiet on

# Command to be executed when an event starts. (default: none)
# An event starts at first motion detected after a period of no motion defined by event_gap
; on_event_start value

# Command to be executed when an event ends after a period of no motion
# (default: none). The period of no motion is defined by option event_gap.
; on_event_end value

# Command to be executed when a picture (.ppm|.jpg) is saved (default: none)
# To give the filename as an argument to a command append it with %f
; on_picture_save value

# Command to be executed when a motion frame is detected (default: none)
; on_motion_detected value

# Command to be executed when motion in a predefined area is detected
# Check option 'area_detect'.   (default: none)
; on_area_detected value

# Command to be executed when a movie file (.mpg|.avi) is created. (default: none)
# To give the filename as an argument to a command append it with %f
; on_movie_start value

# Command to be executed when a movie file (.mpg|.avi) is closed. (default: none)
# To give the filename as an argument to a command append it with %f
; on_movie_end value

# Command to be executed when a camera can't be opened or if it is lost
# NOTE: There is situations when motion don't detect a lost camera!
# It depends on the driver, some drivers dosn't detect a lost camera at all
# Some hangs the motion thread. Some even hangs the PC! (default: none)
; on_camera_lost value

#####################################################################
# Common Options for database features.
# Options require database options to be active also.
#####################################################################

# Log to the database when creating motion triggered picture file  (default: on)
; sql_log_picture on

# Log to the database when creating a snapshot image file (default: on)
; sql_log_snapshot on

# Log to the database when creating motion triggered movie file (default: off)
; sql_log_movie off

# Log to the database when creating timelapse movies file (default: off)
; sql_log_timelapse off

# SQL query string that is sent to the database
# Use same conversion specifiers has for text features
# Additional special conversion specifiers are
# %n = the number representing the file_type
# %f = filename with full path
# Default value:
# Create tables :
##
# Mysql
# CREATE TABLE security (camera int, filename char(80) not null, frame int, file_type int, time_stamp timestamp(14), event_time_stamp timestamp(14));
#
# Postgresql
# CREATE TABLE security (camera int, filename char(80) not null, frame int, file_type int, time_stamp timestamp without time zone, event_time_stamp timestamp without time zone);
#
# insert into security(camera, filename, frame, file_type, time_stamp, text_event) values('%t', '%f', '%q', '%n', '%Y-%m-%d %T', '%C')
; sql_query insert into security(camera, filename, frame, file_type, time_stamp, event_time_stamp) values('%t', '%f', '%q', '%n', '%Y-%m-%d %T', '%C')


############################################################
# Database Options
############################################################

# database type : mysql, postgresql, sqlite3 (default : not defined)
; database_type value

# database to log to (default: not defined)
; database_dbname value

# The host on which the database is located (default: localhost)
; database_host value

# User account name for database (default: not defined)
; database_user value

# User password for database (default: not defined)
; database_password value

# Port on which the database is located
#  mysql 3306 , postgresql 5432 (default: not defined)
; database_port value

############################################################
# Database Options For SQLite3
############################################################

# SQLite3 database (file path) (default: not defined)
; sqlite3_db value



############################################################
# Video Loopback Device (vloopback project)
############################################################

# Output images to a video4linux loopback device
# The value '-' means next available (default: not defined)
; video_pipe value

# Output motion images to a video4linux loopback device
# The value '-' means next available (default: not defined)
; motion_video_pipe value


##############################################################
# Thread config files - One for each camera.
# Except if only one camera - You only need this config file.
# If you have more than one camera you MUST define one thread
# config file for each camera in addition to this config file.
##############################################################

# Remember: If you have more than one camera you must have one
# thread file for each camera. E.g. 2 cameras requires 3 files:
# This motion.conf file AND thread1.conf and thread2.conf.
# Only put the options that are unique to each camera in the
# thread config files.
; thread /etc/motion/thread1.conf
; thread /etc/motion/thread2.conf
; thread /etc/motion/thread3.conf
; thread /etc/motion/thread4.conf

その他、ここで画像の出力先のディレクトリ (target_dir 項目) を作っておく。

另外,在這裡預先建立儲存 JPEG 檔案用的目錄 (target_dir 項目) 。

$ sudo --user=motion mkdir /home/motion/pics

Step 3-4. Start as daemon

$ sudo vi /etc/default/motion
:
: (edit as follows)
:
# set to 'yes' to enable the motion daemon
start_motion_daemon=yes

Step 4. Setup cron

Step 4-1. Create shell scripts

$ sudo --user=motion mkdir /home/motion/bin
$ sudo --user=motion touch /home/motion/bin/motion_every_minute
$ sudo --user=motion touch /home/motion/bin/mv_motion_pics
$ sudo --user=motion chmod 755 /home/motion/bin/*

そして、Google Drive 用の画像ディレクトリを作っておく。

然後,預先新增 Google Drive 用儲存圖片用副目錄。

$ sudo --user=motion mkdir -p /home/motion/google_drive/motion_pics

それぞれのシェルスクリプトの内容は以下。

每個 Shell Script 的內容是如下所列。

(a) /home/motion/bin/motion_every_minute

#!/bin/bash

echo "==START== `date "+%Y%m%d%H%M%S"`"

set -eu

readonly home_dir_='/home/motion'
readonly days_='+3'


## don't change after this line ##

readonly motiontarget_dir_="${home_dir_}/pics"
readonly googledrive_dir_="${home_dir_}/google_drive"
readonly motionpics_dir_="${googledrive_dir_}/motion_pics"
readonly lastsnap_fname_='lastsnap.jpg'



cd "$motionpics_dir_"
/usr/bin/find . -maxdepth 1 -type d -name '2*' -ctime "$days_" -print | /usr/bin/xargs rm -rf
/bin/sync

#
# use '-f' option for symbolic-linked file on testing
# to detect existing the link target or not
#
cd "$motiontarget_dir_"
if [ -f "$lastsnap_fname_" ] ; then
  /bin/cp -f "$lastsnap_fname_" "$motionpics_dir_"
fi
/bin/mv -f *.0.jpg "$motionpics_dir_"
/bin/sync

#
# use cut command to generate directory name, as follows:
#  - cut 3-10: YYYYMMDD, e.g. 20170425
#  - cut 3-12: YYYYMMDDhh, e.g. 2017042509
#
cd "$motionpics_dir_"
/usr/bin/find . -maxdepth 1 -type f -name '2*.jpg' -print | \
  /usr/bin/cut -c 3-12 | /usr/bin/sort | /usr/bin/uniq | \
  /usr/bin/tee >(xargs mkdir -p) | \
  /usr/bin/xargs "${home_dir_}/bin/mv_motion_pics"
/bin/sync

cd "$googledrive_dir_"
/usr/local/bin/drive push -quiet -ignore-conflict -ignore-name-clashes -ignore-checksum -no-prompt

echo "==END== `date "+%Y%m%d%H%M%S"`"

(b) /home/motion/bin/mv_motion_pics

#!/bin/bash

## e.g.
##
## cd /home/motion/google_drive/motion_pics
## find . -maxdepth 1 -type f -name '2*.jpg' -print | \
##   cut -c 3-10 | sort | uniq | tee >(xargs mkdir -p) | \
##   xargs /home/motion/bin/mv_motion_pics
##
## - cut 3-10: YYYYMMDD, e.g. 20170425
## - cut 3-12: YYYYMMDDhh, e.g. 2017042509

set -eu

for dirname_ in $*; do

  filename_="$dirname_*.jpg"

  if [ ! -d "$dirname_" ] ; then
    /bin/echo "Directory $dirname_ does not found" >&2
    exit 1
  fi

  ##/bin/echo "$filename_ --- $dirname_"
  ##/bin/cp -f $filename_ "$dirname_"
  /bin/mv -f $filename_ "$dirname_"

done

exit 0

Step 4-2. Modify user motion’s crontab

$ sudo crontab -u motion -e
:
: (edit motion's crontab and add one setting as follows)
:
*/10 * * * * /usr/bin/flock -n /var/lock/motion_every_minute.lock /home/motion/bin/motion_every_minute > /tmp/motion_every_minute.log 2>&1

cron でロックファイルが必要になるので、システム起動時に生成するように /etc/rc.local へ処理を追加しておく。

因爲執行 cron 時需要用 lock file ,所以在 /etc/rc.local 裡面新增啓動系統是預先要產生其 lock 檔的指令。

$ sudo vi /etc/rc.local
:
: (add lock file as follows)
:
--- /etc/rc.local.0 2017-05-09 18:57:46.244918000 +0800
+++ /etc/rc.local 2017-05-29 18:49:14.942146311 +0800
@@ -17,4 +17,8 @@
printf "My IP address is %s\n" "$_IP"
fi

+## for motion
+/bin/touch /var/lock/motion_every_minute.lock
+/bin/chown motion:motion /var/lock/motion_every_minute.lock
+
exit 0

Step 5. Reboot Raspbian!

Raspberry Pi を再起動!

重開 Raspberry Pi !


Appendix A. Cron で時刻合わせ (nptd -> ntpdate)

TBD.

Appendix B. メモリ利用の最適化

Swap 無効化

TBD.

GPU 用の予約メモリを減らす

TBD.

不要な Daemon を止める

TBD.

書き換え頻発部位を tmpfs 化

TBD. (tmpfs /var/log, /tmp -> fstab)

Appendix C. ファイアウォールを設定する

TBD.

Appendix D. Rootfs の Read-only 化

mount オプション変更

TBD.

Apt コマンド用の調整

TBD.


参考

 

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Yusuke Dada K.
Yusuke Dada K.
台湾の現地企業で主に組み込みソフトウエアの研究開発をしている日本人です。我人是個日本人,負責軟體的研究開發。在臺灣的科技公司工作。

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